Asthma: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment


Asthma is a chronic respiratory condition characterized by inflammation of the airways. The exact cause of asthma is not fully understood, but it is thought to result from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Common triggers and risk factors include:

  • Genetics: A family history of asthma or other allergic conditions increases the risk.
  • Environmental Allergens: Exposure to allergens such as pollen, dust mites, pet dander, mold, and cockroach droppings can trigger asthma.
  • Respiratory Infections: Viral respiratory infections, especially in early childhood, can contribute to asthma development.
  • Occupational Exposures: Workplace exposures to irritants or allergens can be a risk factor.
  • Tobacco Smoke: Exposure to tobacco smoke, especially during early childhood, is a significant risk factor.
  • Air Pollution: Outdoor and indoor air pollution can exacerbate asthma symptoms.
  • Physical Activity: Exercise-induced asthma can be triggered by physical activity.
  • Certain Medications: Aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may trigger asthma symptoms in some individuals.


Asthma symptoms can vary in severity and may include:

  • Shortness of Breath: Difficulty breathing or feeling out of breath.
  • Chest Tightness: A sensation of tightness or pressure in the chest.
  • Coughing: Persistent coughing, often worse at night or early morning.
  • Wheezing: Whistling or squeaky sounds when breathing, particularly during exhalation.

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Controller Medications:

  • Inhaled Corticosteroids: Reduce inflammation in the airways.
  • Long-Acting Beta-Agonists (LABAs): Help relax the airway muscles.
  • Leukotriene Modifiers: Inhibit substances that contribute to inflammation.

Quick-Relief (Rescue) Medications:


  • Short-Acting Beta-Agonists (SABAs): Quickly relieve acute symptoms by relaxing airway muscles.
  • Anticholinergics: Help open airways and reduce mucus production.

Allergy Medications:

  • Antihistamines and other allergy medications may be prescribed to manage allergic triggers.


  • Allergen immunotherapy (allergy shots) may be considered for certain individuals with allergic asthma.

Lifestyle and Environmental Management:

  • Identify and avoid triggers.
  • Use air purifiers and maintain good indoor air quality.
  • Create an asthma action plan for managing symptoms and emergencies.

Regular Monitoring:

  • Regular check-ups with healthcare providers to assess asthma control and adjust treatment as needed.


  • Patients and caregivers should be educated about asthma, medications, and how to recognize and manage symptoms.

Emergency Treatment:

For severe exacerbations, emergency treatment may include oral corticosteroids and bronchodilators.

Asthma management is personalized, and treatment plans are tailored to the individual’s symptoms, triggers, and response to medications. It’s crucial for individuals with asthma to work closely with Best Pulmonologist in Lahore to optimize control and improve quality of life.

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